treeknox Cognos Interview Question and Answers.doc

What is Data warehouse?

In 1980, Bill Inmon known as father of data warehousing. "A Data warehouse is a subject oriented, integrated ,time variant, non volatile collection of data in support of management's decision making process".
Subject oriented : means that the data addresses a specific subject such as sales, inventory etc.
Integrated : means that the data is obtained from a variety of sources.
Time variant : implies that the data is stored in such a way that when some data is changed.
Non volatile : implies that data is never removed. i.e., historical data is also kept.
What is the difference between database and data warehouse?

A database is a collection of related data. 
A data warehouse is also a collection of information as well as a supporting system.
What are the benefits of data warehousing?

Historical information for comparative and competitive analysis.
Enhanced data quality and completeness.Supplementing disaster      recovery plans with another data back up source.
What are the types of data warehouse?

There are mainly three type of Data Warehouse are :
1) Enterprise Data Warehouse 2) Operational data store 3) Data Mart
What is the difference between data mining and data warehousing?

Data mining, the operational data is analyzed using statistical techniques and clustering techniques to find the hidden patterns and trends. So, the data mines do some kind of summarization of the data and can be used by data warehouses for faster analytical processing for business intelligence.
Data warehouse may make use of a data mine for analytical processing of the data in a faster way.
What are the applications of data warehouse?

Data warehouse are used extensively in banking and financial services, consumer goods. > Data warehouse is mainly used for generating reports and answering predefined queries. > Data warehouse is used for strategic purposes, performing multidimensional analysis. > Data warehouse is used for knowledge discovery and strategic decision making using data mining tools.
What are the types of data warehouse applications?

Info processing, Analytical processing and Data mining
What is metadata?

Metadata is defined as the data about data. Metadata describes the entity and attributes description.
What are the benefits of Datawarehousing?

The implementation of a data warehouse can provide many benefits to an organization. A data warehouse can :
Facilitate integration in an environment characterized by un–integrated applications.
Integrate enterprise data across a variety of functions.
Integrate external as well as internal data.
Support strategic and long–term business planning.
Support day–to–day tactical decisions.
Enable insight into business trends and business opportunities.
Organize and store historical data needed for analysis.
Make available historical data, extending over many years, which enables trend analysis.
Provide more accurate and complete information.
Improve knowledge about the business.
Enable cost–effective decision making.
Enable organizations to understand their customers, and their needs, as well competitors.
Enhance customer servicc and satisfaction.
Provide competitive advantage.
Provide easy access for end–users.
Provide timely access to corporate information.
What is the difference between dimensional table and fact table?

A dimension table consists of tuples of attributes of the dimension. A fact table can be thought of as having tuples, one per a recorded fact. This fact contains some measured or observed variables and identifies them with pointers to dimension tables.
What is data mart?

A data mart can contain one fact table to address one subject. In such a case,when a number of data marts are integrated to create a DWH, it is important that the facts in each table mean the same thing. Such facts (i.e., measures or metrics) that have the same meaning in different data marts are called conformed facts.
What are the different types of datasmarts?

Stand–alone Data Marts : Data marts that do not interact with other data marts are called stand–alone data marts. On the other hand, data marts can be integrated to create a data warehouse.
Multi–source Data Mart : A data mart for which the input data is obtained from multiple sources is called a multi–source data mart.
Personal Data Mart : A data mart for use by individuals such as Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Chief Technology Officer (CTO) or Chief Financial Officer (CFO) is called Personal Data Mart.
Operational Data Store : ODS is a database system that obtains data from different sources, consolidates it and keeps it at a single location. However, it does not have the sophistication of a data mart or a data warehouse for analytical processing. ODS is generally developed as a pre-cursor for ERP systems.
What is fact table?

A fact table is the central table that contains the measures or facts of a business process.
What is the mapplet?

Mapplet is a set of transformations that you build in the mapplet designer and you can use in multiple mappings.
What is meant by grain?

Granularity of data is a very important factor in the design of fact table. In fact table, we can represent data at different atomic levels, called grains.
What is Cognos Impromptu?

Cognos Impromptu is a tool for generation of business intelligence reports.
What is Cubes?

A cube consists of a set of ordered dimensions and measures. A cube may have one or several dimensions.
What is query subject?

A query subject is the basic building block in framework manager. A query subject is a set of query items that have an inherent relationship.
What is Report item?

Report item is a query item when it is drag and drop into the work area.
What is a query item?

Query items are mainly used in Reporting and for BI Authors it is the most essential object from the framework manager. These have lot of properties associated with them and are present in query subjects. Query items are similar to subsets of query subjects.
What are the advantages of Cognos?

Planning, Analysis, Forecasting and Score carding
What are packages?

Packages are used for reporting.
What is materialized view?

A view which is physically stored in a database. Materialized views allow query performance to be enhanced by pre calculating costly operations.
What is schema?

A schema is composed of a set of dimensions and a set of fact relationships.
What is folder?

Folder contains repository objects such as sources, targets, mappings, transformation which are helps logically organize our data warehouse.
What are the types of report?

Blank report, List report, Cross report, Chart report, Repeater report
What are Slice and Dice?

An operation that allows one to select a portion of the data of a fact on the basis of specified values in one or several dimensions.
What is pivot?

The pivot (or rotate) operation rotates the axes of a cube to provide an alternative presentation of the data.
What are the types of gateway?

Common Gateway Interface(CGI),
Internet Service Application Interface(ISAPI) and Tomcat
What is Cognos Reporting tool?

Cognos is a reporting tool from IBM which helps in reporting and analysis of various data from a data warehouse.
What are the types of framework manager?

There are two types of framework manager are :
Presentation layer and Physical layer
What are dimensions?

Dimensions define the structure of a cube. A dimension must have at least one key attribute and other attributes that may define hierarchies.
What are the components of Report Net?

Report Net components are :
Framework manager, Cognos connection, Query Studio, Report Studio
What are the types of hierarchies?

In Analysis Services, there are two types of hierarchies are :
Attribute hierarchies and User defined hierarchies.
What is slice?

The slice operation performs a selection on one dimension of a cube, resulting in a sub cube.
What are the types of prompt?

Value Prompt, Textbox, Select and search, Date, Time, Date and time, Interval, Generated Prompt.
What is Cognos Connection?

It is a Web portal for Cognos 8 and a component which interacts with the Content Store. It is a frontend to publish, find, manage, organize, and view organization's business intelligence data.
What is framework manager?

Frame manager is a development tool to create the end-user layer used by authors to build their BI objects.
What is OLAP designer?

OLAP Designer is a development tool used to model and create multidimensional databases. A multidimensional database, often referred to as a cube, is a highly compressed database and contains summarized information that is optimized for analysis.
What is metrics designer?

Metrics Designer is a development tool used to model and deploy scorecards and related data loading procedures.
What is meant by drill across?

The drill–across operation executes queries involving more than one cube.
What is meant by drill through?

The drill–through operation allows one to move from data at the bottom level in a cube to data in the operational systems from which the cube was derived.
What is meant by drill down?

The drill-down operation performs the operation opposite to the roll-up operation, i.e., it moves from a more general level to a detailed level in a hierarchy, thus presenting more detailed measures.
Define data mining?

A data mining dimension provides support for dimensions that result from data mining models.
What is Metrics Designer?

Metrics Designer is a development tool used to model and deploy scorecards and related data loading procedures.
What is cognos powerplay?

Cognos powerplay is for multidimensional on–line analysis of data.
What is the use of cognos decision stream?

Cognos decision stream is a tool for extraction, transformation of loading of data from the source databases to the target database.
What is the use of cognos scenario?

Cognos scenario is used to find the hidden trends and patterns in data.
What is meant by drilling Up?

Drilling down is adding grouping columns from the dimension tables, then drilling up is subtracting grouping columns.
What are the three important fundamental themes in a data warehouse?

The three most important fundamental themes are :
Drilling Down, Drilling Across and Handling Time
How to create reports?

Use Report Studio to create more advanced business reports.
What is the security module used in Cognos?

The security module used in Cognos is Cognos access manager.
What is catalog ?

A catalog is a file containing the information (Database tables) that Impromptu users need to create reports.
What are the types of catalogs in Cognos?

There are four types of catalogs in Cognos. They are :
Personal, Distributed, Shared and Secured
What are the differences between Reporter report and Explorer report?

In a Cube, you can either modify or explore. Reporter is used to modify where as explorer is used to explore the cube.
What is cognos connection?

Cognos Connection is used to monitor, configure and optimize a Cognos 8 BI installation through a web interface. It is the same tool used by Consumers, but contains other advanced options for administration.
What is cognos configuration?

Cognos Configuration is the Cognos 8 BI administrative tool that is used to define the behavior of a Cognos 8 BI installation. It is used to manage configuration parameters.
What are the types of folder?

There are three main types of folders are :
Standard folder, Package folder and Metrics folder
What is the difference between standard and metrics folder?

Standard Folder : This is a container for other folders and/or BI objects, and is used for organizational purposes. It will behave just like a folder on your local computer, but will operate like a web page with active links. A bright yellow icon specifics Standard folders.
Metrics Folder : Metrics folders arc used by the Metrics Studio to store metrics-related information. While the standard behavior upon selecting the other two folder types is to show their contents, a Metrics Folder will open up directly into Metrics Studio. A dark blue icon with colored dots specifies Metrics folders.
What is query studio?

Query studio are used to perform ad hoc queries.
What is difference between drill through and drill down?

The drill through operation allows one to move from data at the bottom level in a cube to data in the operational systems from which the cube was derived. 
The drill down operation performs the operation opposite to the roll-up operation, i.e., it moves from a more general level to a detailed level in a hierarchy, thus presenting more detailed measures.
What is the difference between a cascading report and drill through report?

Cascading prompt means to extract the data from one prompt to using values from another prompt.
Drill through report means to extract the data by selecting a column in a report, means to get the detailed information by clicking that column data.
What are the types of studio?

There are five types of studio are :
Query Studio, Metrics Studio, Analysis Studio, Report Studio and Event Studio
What are Cognos connection initial page components?

The page can be broken down into three major sections :
1) The Studio Toolbar 2) The Utilities Toolbar 3) The Tab Navigator
What is the difference between macros and prompt?

Macro is set of instructions to run report.
Prompt provide a way to dynamically change the reports.
What is Cognos scenario?

Cognos scenario is a tool that is used to find the hidden trends and patterns in data.
How to create cubes in transformer?

Cube can be created by using different data sources.
What are the components of Report Net?

There are four components of report net are :
Framework manager, Cognos connection, Query Studio and Report Studio
What is transformer?

Transformer is used for building the Cubes (Multidimensional Structure used for OLAP processing).
What is model?

A model is a complete set of query objects and query subjects that are used for reporting.
What is IQD?

IQD stands for Impromptu Query Definition. It is report save extension with .iqd it is use for creating a cube in power play transformer.
What is cascading prompts?

Cascading Prompts allows a user to use values selected from one prompt to filter values in another prompt.
What is the use of charts?

Charts are a graphical way of presenting information. Use charts to reveal trends and relationships that are not evident in tabular reports.
What are the filters in Framework Manager and Report Studio?

Filters in framework manager are :
Standalone filters and Embedded filters
Report studio Filters are :
Detail filters and Summary filters
What is difference between content store and content manager?

A content store is a data base which stores the meta data of the reports.
Content manager is a service which is available in dispatcher. which it manages the security.
What is Cognos 8 BI?

Cognos 8BI is a powerful suite of products that focuses on transforming raw data into powerful information for business decisions. Cognos 8 BI can be used across all levels in an organization, from users looking for pre-defined reports to analysts with complex data requirements.
What are package folders?

This folder is similar to a Standard Folder, but internally it contains pre-defined business rules and metadata related to sources of information. It is used by the Studios to create new queries, reports, analyses, etc. A dark blue icon specifics Package folders.
What are components of report studio?

There are four components of report studio are :
Insertable Objects pane ,Properties pane ,Explorer bar and Report Viewer
What are the types of security?

There are three different types of Security are :
Data security: Create a security filter and apply it to a specific query subject.
Object security: Secure an object directly by allowing users access to the object, denying users access to the object, or keeping it hidden for all users.
Package security: Apply security to a package and identify who has access to that package.
What is metrics designer?

Metrics Designer is a development tool used to model and deploy scorecards and related data loading procedures.
What is query studio?

Query Studio is a very user friendly ad hoc query tool that allows users to easily access information. With Query Studio, the user drags and drops fields to execute queries, and with multiple available options at a touch of the mouse, it can group data, create summaries, display charts, filter information and export data.
What is metrics studio?

Metrics Studio is a powerful scorecard tool that allows for the creation and monitoring of goals through an organization.
What is analysis studio?

Analysis Studio is the user friendly tool used to quickly analyze summarized information with powerful dimension and variable crossing for complex analysis, discovery of trends and forecasting.
What is report studio?

Report Studio is the professional report authoring tool. The tool allows for the development of pixel perfect reports, such as invoices and statements, as well as very complex layouts, such as those required for enterprise dashboards.
What is event studio?

Event Studio is a monitoring tool that allows for the definition of agents that will monitor certain user-defined events and will execute tasks accordingly. They can be saved to Cognos as ″agents″.
What are the types of user roles?

The users of Cognos 8 BI can be grouped into four major roles based upon their respective business and technical requirements.
Consumers, Authors, Developers, Administrators
What are repeaters?

Repeaters are tables in which you can insert items that are repeated when you run the report.
What are cross tab reports?

Crosstab reports are reports that show data in rows and columns. However, the values at the intersection points of rows and columns show summarized information rather than detailed information.
What is list report?

A list report is a report that shows data in rows and columns. Each column shows all the values for a query item in the database or a calculation based on query items in the database.



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